Please Note: This week we reached the halfway mark in our study. We’re taking one week off and will be back next week with chapters 26-30.
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Welcome back to week five of our Exodus Bible study. If you haven’t done so already, feel free to jump in and join us. You’ll find everything you need to get started, including a copy of the Bible study guide on our intro post. Click here to go there now.
Please note: If you have trouble keeping up with all of the questions in the study guide, I would suggest that you read a chapter and choose 2 or three questions/day. You don’t have to answer every question, and in fact, you could save those for the next time you go through the study. The questions are designed to help you dig deeper–not overwhelm you. So enjoy yourself and dig into God’s word!
Exodus 21-25 – Questions and Answers
Exodus Chapters 21-22
Questions and Answers…
Before we read these chapters, let’s look at Galatians 3:19-26 to gain a better understanding of the law of Moses. What was its purpose?
The law wasn’t a means of justification, but rather to show men their need for justification, until Abraham’s seed, to whom the promise was made, should come.
Some would say that all born of Abraham are his seed, but Galatians 3:29 tells us, “And if ye be Christ’s, then are ye Abraham’s seed, and heirs according to the promise.” Therefore, Abraham’s seed are those who walk in faith.
The law pointed men toward Christ. It taught them that there was a penalty for sin, and the need for a sacrifice.
And so we see that the New Testament doesn’t replace the law or contradict the Old Testament. In fact, Jesus said, “Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil.” – Matthew 5:17
Jesus is the fulfillment of the law. Everything written in the law was written for a purpose. There was a need that was satisfied through the death and resurrection of Christ.
Matthew 6:24 says that we can’t serve two masters. We’re either slaves to sin or servants of God. How is one a slave to sin? And what can we do to change that?
Whether we realize it or not, there’s a spiritual struggle taking place in our lives as the flesh is at war against our Spirit. Galatians 5:24 tells us, “they that are Christ’s have crucified the flesh with the affections and lusts.”
Those who keep feeding the flesh, weaken the Spirit. In fact, I had a woman tell me this afternoon that she felt trapped in her sin. She knew what was right, but couldn’t find the strength to do it. She had been feeding her sin for so long that it was winning the fight.
Galatians 5:17 says, “For the flesh lusts against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh: and these are contrary the one to the other: so that you cannot do the things that you would.”
The Bible tells us that there’s freedom from sin, but I can tell you that it’s not always easy. Crucifying the flesh can be painful some days, as we put aside our passion and lust for the truth of God’s Word. The good news however, is that freedom from sin leads us to peace and joy in His presence.
“That the righteousness of the law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit. For they that are after the flesh do mind the things of the flesh; but they that are after the Spirit the things of the Spirit. For to be carnally minded is death; but to be spiritually minded is life and peace.” – Romans 8:4-6
What does Jesus say about an eye for an eye in the New Testament? See Matthew 5:38-42.
To turn the other cheek, to give to those who have taken from us, and give to those who ask.
The Old Testament taught us that there was a penalty for every action—an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth. This penalty was paid in full when Christ took His place upon the cross not for our sins alone, but also for those who have taken from us.
“And be ye kind one to another, tenderhearted, forgiving one another, even as God for Christ’s sake hath forgiven you.” – Ephesians 4:32
List some of the specific ways that God is protecting His people with these laws.
As I read these laws, I see that God is protecting: servants, daughters, pregnant women and their husbands, those who kill by accident, those kidnapped, the injured, animals, those who are robbed, owners of fields and vineyards, virgins, strangers (foreigners), widows, orphans, the poor, and the leaders.
What does Paul mean in Romans 8:3 when he says, “For what the law could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin, condemned sin in the flesh?”
The law served to show man his sin and lead him to the perfect law of salvation through Jesus Christ. It was weak through the flesh because anyone who tried to keep the law couldn’t perfectly keep it. The Bible tells us that all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God.
When God sent His Son to die in our place, He paid the price we couldn’t pay. His perfect sacrifice is the redemption we so desperately needed.
What are the core differences between the old covenant (Old Testament) and the new one? See 2 Corinthians 3:6-8, 3:12-18 & Hebrews 10:16.
The law was written on stone, but in the new covenant God has written the law upon our heart through the work of the Holy Spirit.
While the law was a teacher to point man to salvation, Jesus is the only way to salvation. Through faith in His blood we are reconciled to God.
There are three kinds of laws in the Bible: Moral laws, Judicial (civil) laws, and Ceremonial laws. Give an example of each.
A moral law would be laws like the Ten Commandments. These are the things we instinctively know are right and wrong. These laws reflect the character of God.
Judicial laws at the laws of the land. These are designed to keep order.
Ceremonial laws were laws that the Israelites adhered to as God’s people. These include sacrifices and ceremonies (such as circumcision), feasts and festivals, dietary and clothing restrictions. (gotquestions.org)
According to Matthew 5:17, Jesus came to fulfill the law. How did He fulfill the law?
The law required a perfect sacrifice for the redemption of man. The law pointed men to that through the sacrifices they brought to the temple, but could never fulfill that role that only Jesus Christ could when He died on the cross for our sins.
“Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I have not come to abolish them but to fulfill them.” – Matthew 5:17
Exodus Chapter 23
What moral wisdom can you glean from verses 1-9?
Don’t gossip. Stand up for what’s right. Don’t follow the wrong crowd, or give a dishonest testimony to fit in with others. Don’t offer a false report just because someone is poor and you want to help them. Look out for the well being of others even if you don’t get along. Don’t contribute to the death of innocent people. Don’t be enticed by bribes that draw you away from doing or saying what’s right.
What does verse 11 teach us about God’s character?
He has compassion for both the poor and for every living thing on the earth.
Verse 12 gives us a good reason to have one day of rest. What is that?
So that employees and animals can have a day of rest too.
What were the three feast mentioned in this chapter?
The Feast of Unleavened Bread/Passover
Feast of Harvest/Pentecost
The Feast of Ingathering/Tabernacles
Each of these feasts were fulfilled through the Death and Resurrection of Jesus Christ. Each of them were designed to help them understand salvation and to lead them to repentance.
Passover – Just as the Israelites were protected by blood during their flight from Egypt, we are protected by the blood of the Lamb. When Jesus became our Passover Lamb, His blood became our protection from sin.
Pentecost – The descent of the Holy Spirit, which Jesus promised He would send is also known as the Pentecost. This came 50 days after the resurrection of Christ (Acts 2). The original feast was celebrated 50 days after the wave-sheaf offering that took place during the feast of unleavened bread.
Tabernacles – John 1:14 tells us, “And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us.” That Greek word for “dwelt” here is skénoo (stong’s G4637). It is translated as, “to fix one’s tabernacle, have one’s tabernacle, abide (or live) in a tabernacle.” Further into the book of Exodus we’ll read about the tabernacle the Israelites were instructed to make in which God dwelt with His people. “And let them make me a sanctuary; that I may dwell among them.” – Exodus 25:8
“Let no man therefore judge you in meat, or in drink, or in respect of an holyday, or of the new moon, or of the Sabbath days: which are a shadow of things to come; but the body is of Christ.”
– Colossians 2:16-17
How are Christians under the new covenant commanded to keep the feast within their heart? 1 Corinthians 5:7-8
By living out our salvation with sincerity and truth.
Compare verses 20-23 to John 16:12-15 what comparisons, if any, can we draw here?
In the Old Testament God sent an angel to lead them. They were instructed to be obedient to him.
In the new covenant, we are led by the Holy Spirit, also called “The Spirit of Truth.” The law is written in our hearts. The Holy Spirit teaches us what is right and what is wrong. And the more that we exercise ourselves by adhering to God’s Word and following the Spirit of Truth, the better we become at discerning good from evil.
“But strong meat belongeth to them that are of full age, even those who by reason of use have their senses exercised to discern both good and evil.” – Hebrews 5:14
Exodus Chapter 24
What was the people’s response to the Lord’s words?
They were ready and willing to do what the Lord said.
Moses set up twelve stone pillars to represent the 12 tribes of Israel. What were the names of those tribes?
Compare verse 8 with Matthew 26:27-28, and Hebrews 9:16-22. What can we learn from these verses?
In the old covenant, the people were sprinkled with the blood of a young bull as a cleansing ritual. This was a shadow of the new covenant by which was are cleansed from our sin by the blood of our Lord, Jesus Christ.
What difference do we find between the old and the new covenant when we compare verse 12 with Hebrews 10:16?
The old covenant was written on tablets of stone. The new covenant is written in our hearts and our mind.
When Moses went up through the cloud onto the mountain, how long did he stay there?
40 days and 40 nights.
Exodus Chapter 25
At the beginning of this chapter, God tells Moses to ask the people to bring their offerings. What was He planning to do with them?
God wanted the people to make him a sanctuary (tabernacle) where He would dwell among them.
What can verse two teach us about giving to God?
That when we give to God we should give willingly from the heart.
What were the dimensions of the ark?
The cubit is an ancient unit based on the forearm length from the middle finger tip to the elbow bottom. Cubits of various lengths were employed in many parts of the world in antiquity… The Near Eastern or Biblical cubit is usually estimated as approximately 457.2 mm (18 in).
And so the ark was 2.5 long, 1.5 wide, and 1.5 high
This translates to 45” long by 27” wide and 27” high
Pay close attention to the lid of the box. This is known as “The Mercy Seat.” Leviticus chapter 16 talks about “The Day of Atonement,” at which time the high priest would enter the holy of holies each year and sprinkle the mercy seat with blood to atone for the sins of the people. (Also see Hebrews 9:7). How did this change when Christ came? See Hebrews 9:11-14
Atonement means to compensate for wrong doing. This is also known as redemption, which is paying a debt in full.
Jesus’ blood was shed, when He died on the cross to atone for our sins. His blood accomplished what the old covenant could not. By His blood, He paid our debt once and for all. He satisfied the need to enter the Holy of Holies year after year, and through one sacrifice He offers eternal redemption.
What was Moses instructed to put inside the ark?
In this chapter, God instructs them to place the tablets of stone which contained the covenant law and commandments into the ark. Hebrews 9 however, lists three things that we’re placed in the ark:
The golden pot that had manna
Aaron’s rod that budded
The tables of the covenant
What were they instructed to make after the ark?
The table of showbread
What were they instructed to put on the table? And what might this symbolize?
The showbread (bread of the Presence). We learn more about the showbread in Leviticus 24:5-7:
“And thou shalt take fine flour, and bake twelve cakes thereof: two tenth deals shall be in one cake. And thou shalt set them in two rows, six on a row, upon the pure table before the Lord. And thou shalt put pure frankincense upon each row, that it may be on the bread for a memorial, even an offering made by fire unto the Lord.”
We discover the symbolism of this bread in John 6:35 where Jesus says, “I am the bread of life: he that cometh to me shall never hunger; and he that believeth on me shall never thirst.”
Matthew Henry writes, “Christ shows that he is the true Bread; He is to the soul what bread is to the body, nourishes and supports the spiritual life. He is the Bread of God. Bread which the Father gives, which he has made to be the food of our souls.”
What might the lampstand symbolize? Also see Revelation 4:5.
The New Testament talks about letting our light shine before men. It warns us not to hide the light, but to place it on a lampstand where everyone can see.
And so we understand that this light is our testimony—the evidence of our faith–shining brightly within us by His Spirit that guides us in truth. The Spirit is the oil of anointing that we each receive when we come to salvation. It’s the fuel that keeps our lamps burning day in and day out. Matthew 5:14-16 says,
“Ye are the light of the world. A city that is set on an hill cannot be hid. Neither do men light a candle, and put it under a bushel, but on a candlestick; and it giveth light unto all that are in the house. Let your light so shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father which is in heaven.”
The Spirit gives us strength and power and wisdom from God. In the same way that a fire is fed, so is our faith.